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论文题名(中文):

 高温时段遮阳对温室番茄生长发育的影响

作者:

 贾会丽

论文语种:

 chi

学科名称:

 蔬菜学

学位:

 农学硕士

学校:

 山西农业大学

院系:

 园艺学院

专业:

 蔬菜学

研究方向:

 设施园艺

第一导师姓名:

 李亚灵

论文完成日期:

 2007-06-01

论文题名(外文):

 he effect of shading on growth and development of greenhouse tomato during high temperature period

关键词(中文):

 遮阳 温室番茄 叶片 叶面积指数(LAI) 座果率 生物量

关键词(外文):

 shading greenhouse tomato leaf leaf area index fruit setting biomass

论文文摘(中文):

温室番茄生产已经逐步成为我国温室的主导产业,然而夏季高温是影响我国北方地区温室番茄产量提高的关键因子。为降低高温危害,试验于20064月到8月间在山西农业大学农业工程研究所的三连跨日光温室内采用透光率为28%的黑色遮阳材料于每天11:0015:00遮挡在植株周围,以分析遮阳后的降温效果,以及遮阳对植株营养生长、生殖生长、干物质分配等的影响,得出以下结论:

1. 遮阳可以明显降低晴天高温、强光照时段温室的温度。晴天中午前后温室内最高平均温度达43,遮阳后温度基本都在35以下,且随温室温度的增加,遮阳网的降温效果更明显,在中午13:00左右降温值最大,达9.3。试验期间遮阳网内外11:0015:00之间温度相差明显,遮阳网外平均温度为37.9,遮阳后平均温度为31.5,二者平均相差6.4

2.试验中番茄叶片出叶率为0.34/天,遮阳没有影响番茄出叶率,也没有影响植株叶片数;遮阳前期植株单叶叶面积平均偏低13%,但后期平均提高8%;遮阳后植株的叶片略微变薄,但叶绿素含量比不遮阳植株增加32%,并且遮阳植株在早上的净光合速率较高,与不遮阳植株相比,7:00的净光合速率平均高0.68CO2μmol/m2/s10:00的净光合速率平均高0.89CO2μmol/m2/s

3.试验中番茄果穗产生率约为0.1/天,遮阳没有影响番茄出穗率,也没有影响植株果穗数;植株前5穗座果率受遮阳影响较小,达90%以上,第6穗以后遮阳植株座果率较高于不遮阳植株植株前期单穗产量较高,前6穗果平均产量遮阳植株为427.8g/穗,不遮阳植株为487.7g/穗,第6穗果后植株单穗产量急剧下降,平均单穗产量遮阳植株为161.2g/穗,不遮阳植株仅为143.9g/穗。

4. 遮阳能延缓番茄植株衰老,延长生物量快速积累时期20天左右;遮阳对物质在营养器官和果实中的分配、以及各器官干物质含量基本没有产生大的影响。

综上所述,11:0015:00时段的遮阳有效地降低了温室高温危害,可以成为越夏番茄栽培中避免高温危害的一个有效措施。

文摘(外文):

Greenhouse tomato production has increasingly become the main part in greenhouse industry in China. However, high temperature in summer appears to be one of the key factors influencing the yield of the tomato production. In order to reduce the damage of high temperature, the experiment was taken out from mid of April when plants had 8~10 leaves and ended in mid of August. Shading material was black nylon with transmission rate of 28%. The paper aims to analysis the variation of temperature after shading, and the effect of shading on the vegetative growth and the generative growth and also the dry matter production and allocation of greenhouse tomato. The results are as follows:

1. Shading could obviously reduce the temperature during the period of high temperature and high radiation intensity. The greenhouse temperature could reach up to 43 in summer, after shading, the temperature was lower than 35. With the increment of the greenhouse temperature, the effect of the shading was obvious, and the temperature at 13:00 could reduce 9.3. The temperature during 11:00~15:00 was 6.4 different due to the shading. The average temperature was 37.9 out of shading, and 31.5 in the shading.

2. The variation of leaf emergency rate of the plants under the shading was about 0.34 leaf per day, no any difference compared with the normal case. The earlier stage of shading decreased the individual leaf area about 13%, while the individual leaf area was increased 8% in the later stage. The leaf thickness of shading plants was much thinner, but the content of chlorophyll was increased 32%. The net photosynthetic rate of shading plants was increased in morning, 0.68CO2μmol/m2/s around 7:00, 0.89 CO2μmol/m2/s around 10:00, compared with the normal plants.

3. The variation of flower cluster rate of the plants under the shading was about 0.1 clusters per day, no any difference compared with the normal case. The fruit set of first five cluster were 90% more. After that, the fruit set of shading plants were higher than that the normal plants. The yield of the first six cluster was higher 427.8g/ cluster for the shading plants and 487.7g/ cluster for normal plants. The yield after 6th cluster was rapidly decreased, 143.9 g/ cluster for normal plants and 161.2g/ cluster for the shading plants.             

4. Shading could delay senescence of tomato plantsand could prolong about 20 days for biomass quickly accumulating. Shading had little difference on dry matter allocation to vegetative part and fruit section and had no effect on dry matter content of all organs.

   In conclusion, shading took out between 11:00~15:00 each day could obviously reduce the high temperature damage of tomato, and could become a effective measure for long season cultivation to avoid high temperature during summer.

 

开放日期:

 2007-06-01

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