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论文题名(中文):

 不同生育时期施氮对超高产小麦

作者:

 陈梅

论文语种:

 chi

学科名称:

 作物栽培学与耕作学

学位:

 农学硕士

学校:

 山西农业大学

院系:

 农学院

专业:

 作物栽培与耕作学

研究方向:

 旱作机理与作物生态

第一导师姓名:

 高志强

论文完成日期:

 2006-06-01

论文题名(外文):

 Influence of top application of nitrogen in different breeding periods on development of colony and individual of high yield wheat grown by sparse seeding and compact row

关键词(中文):

 超高产小麦 追氮 生理特性 光合特性 产量

关键词(外文):

 Wheat with super high yields Top application of nitrogen Physiological characters Photosynthetic characters Yields

论文文摘(中文):

本文选用了山西省推广的两种不同穗型的优质品种,研究了小麦返青、拔节及孕穗三个不同时期追肥对小麦群体和个体生长发育及产量的影响,研究结果如下:

1、在土壤肥沃、管理水平较高的条件下,基施的氮素也能够满足农大9801和山农9-1前期生长的需求;适当推迟追氮时期,能够满足超高产小麦生长中后期对氮素较高的需求,提高旗叶叶绿素(CHI)含量,增强旗叶RUBPcase活性和Pn速率,减缓光合面积(LAI)与群体光合速率(CAP)衰退,增强叶片SOD活性,减少MDA积累,使得叶片可溶性糖和可溶性蛋白质含量均维持在较高水平,并且使得生长发育过程中的CN代谢较为协调,植株生长健壮。在四个处理中,以孕穗期和拔节期追氮两个处理后期酶活性较高,所测定的光合性状(CHIRUBPcasePnLAICAP)均维持在较高水平,植株生长发育较为理想;返青期追氮较早,容易造成后期叶片中SOD活性降低,MDA积累量增加,光合性状变劣,CN代谢失调,导致植株早衰。

2、进一步分析不同追氮时期对超高产小麦产量及其构成因素的影响可以看出,氮肥后移对小麦抽穗前各生育期的出现没有影响,主要差别表现在小麦抽穗开花至成熟期,与前重施氮肥相比,后重施氮肥结合浇水,抽穗开花期无差别或提前1d,成熟期一般推迟1-2d,从而延长了灌浆期。拔节期追氮肥处理在成熟前的一周内,千粒日增重明显高于其他处理,最终千粒重提高。这主要是因为前氮后移可以维持灌浆后期较高的叶绿素含量,灌浆期有较高的叶面积系数,并且这一处理的产量构成三因素较为协调,产量最高;孕穗期追氮后期千粒重与穗粒数明显提高,但是因为单位面积成穗数较少,因此,增产效果次于拔节期追肥,返青期追肥则增产效果不显著,产量及产量构成三因素不协调,增产幅度较小。

 

文摘(外文):

In this paper, two excellent wheat varieties extended in Shanxi province with different ear types were selected and influences of three different periods of striking root, jointing and ear bearing on growth, development and yields of wheat with high yields were studied. The results show as following:

1.In the conditions of fertilized soil and good regulation, application of less nitrogen as basic fertilizer is able to satisfy growth demand of Nongda 9801 and Shannong 9-1 with super high yields in the prior period; proper postponement of period of top application of nitrogen is able to satisfy nitrogen demand of wheat with super high yields in the middle and later periods, increase contents of CHI, strengthen activity of RUBPcase and speed of Pa in flag leaves, lessen fading of LAI and CAP, promote activity of SOD, decline MAD accumulation, maintain high level of soluble sugar and protein in leaves, coordinate metabolism of C and N in the process of growth and development leading to strong growth of stems. Of four treatments, enzyme activity in later period of the two treatments of top application of nitrogen in ear bearing period and jointing period is high, photosynthetic characters tested(CHI, RUBPcase, Pn, LAI, CAP ) are at a high level, growth and development of stems are ideal; earlier top application of nitrogen in striking root period is liable to cause declining activity of SOD in leaves in later period, accumulation of MAD, bad photosynthetic characters, imbalance of metabolism of C and N and early consenescence of plants

2. By further analysis of influence of different periods of top application of nitrogen on yields and constituent factors of wheat with super yields, we know no influence of late application of nitrogen fertilizer on appearance of each breeding period of wheat before coming into ears. Main differences are that from coming into ears to blooming, in the condition of later emphasis application of nitrogen fertilizer combining irrigation, the periods of coming into ears to blooming have no difference or advances 1d, delays maturity periods 1-2d and extend the grouting period compared early emphasis application of nitrogen fertilizer. Top application of nitrogen in jointing period is conducted with one week of maturity so that thousand seed weight increase significantly, the reason of which is later application of nitrogen fertilizer is able to maintain high contents of chlorophyll in later grouting period, high coefficient of leaf area in grouting period, assertive three factors of yield constituent and highest yields. Thousand seed weight and quantities of seeds in each ear increase significantly, but, because of ears in unit area, effect of yield increase is less good than that of top application in jointing period. Effect of yield increase of top application in striking root is not significantly, yields and three factors of yield constituent are not assertive and range of yield increase declines.

开放日期:

 2007-06-01

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