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论文题名(中文):

 施磷对石灰性土壤磷形态转化及磷吸附的影响

作者:

 李兵霞

论文语种:

 chi

学科名称:

 植物营养学

学位:

 农学硕士

学校:

 山西农业大学

院系:

 资源环境学院

专业:

 植物营养学

研究方向:

 现代施肥技术

第一导师姓名:

 卜玉山

论文完成日期:

 2007-06-01

论文题名(外文):

 Effects of using phosphate on the phosphorus types and the adsorption of phosphorus in the calcareous soils

关键词(中文):

 石灰性土壤 无机磷形态 有机磷形态 吸附

关键词(外文):

 Calcareous soil Inorganic phosphorus fraction Organic phosphorus fraction Adsorption

论文文摘(中文):

本文通过对6种石灰性农田土壤进行的培养试验和对两种石灰性土壤进行的盆栽试验,研究了施磷对不同石灰性农田土壤磷形态转化、有效性以及土壤对磷的吸附能力的影响。试验结果表明:

1. 通过对6种石灰性农田土壤进行恒定水分和温度条件下的培养试验,结果证明:在没有磷肥加入时,随着培养时间延长,无机磷中Ca8-PAl-P逐渐增加,Ca2-PCa10-PFe-P含量随着时间推移也有所上升,O-P变化不明显;有机磷中的活性有机磷、中活性有机磷有下降趋势,中稳性有机磷和高稳性有机磷变化不明显。在有磷肥加入时,6种石灰性农田土壤不同形态磷含量均有不同程度的增加,且磷肥的加入量与不同形态磷增加量呈正相关关系。就无机磷而言,Ca2-P在培养前一个月后含量就达到最高,而后随着时间推移平缓下降,最后趋于稳定,Ca8-PAl-PFe-PCa10-P含量随着时间延长始终呈增长趋势,其中Ca8-P增长幅度最大,Al-PFe-PCa10-P含量增加较为平缓,O-P变化最小;不同形态有机磷含量增加大小顺序为:MLOPMROPLOPHROP

2. 通过对两种石灰性土壤进行盆栽试验证明:石灰性土壤主要以Ca8-P为作物提供磷素,且Al-PCa2-PFe-PCa10-P均能不同程度地为作物提供磷素,活性有机磷、中活性有机磷、中稳性有机磷发生矿化亦能供给作物磷素,O-P和高稳性有机磷作用最小。

3. 通过对石灰性土壤磷形态含量与土壤有效磷的相关分析表明:Ca2-PCa8-PAl-P与土壤速效磷呈相关关系,说明这三种无机形态磷是较为有效的磷源,三者有效性大小顺序为:Ca2-PCa8-PAl-PCa2-PCa8-PAl-P三者之间相关性显著,说明这三种形态无机磷可以互相转化;活性有机磷、中活性有机磷、中稳性有机磷与土壤速效磷呈显著相关关系,说明这三种有机磷也是有效磷源。

4. 石灰性土壤的磷恒温吸附曲线能很好地拟合Langmuir等温吸附方程。土壤吸磷量与土壤速效磷、土壤全磷、有机质含量以及磷肥施用量呈负相关关系。施磷增加了土壤磷含量,降低土壤对磷的最大吸附量,提高土壤对磷的吸附能;随着培养时间的延长,石灰性土壤对磷的最大吸附量下降,土壤对磷的吸附能有上升趋势。种植油菜后,Qm值有所上升,k值呈下降趋势。

 

文摘(外文):

An incubation experiment with 6 different kinds of calcareous farmland soils and a pot experiment with 2 different kinds of calcareous soils were conducted to study the influence of using phosphate on the transformation and availabilities of the different phosphorus fractions and the adsorption of phosphorus in the calcareous soils. The result indicated that:

1. Under the same moisture and temperature condition, the results of incubating 6 different kinds of calcareous farmland soils indicated that Ca8-P, Al-P, Ca2-P , Ca10-P, and Fe-P increased as the incubation time went on, O-P did not change in the 6 soils; Labile organic P (LOP) and moderately labile organic P (MLOP) dropped, moderately resistant organic P (MROP) and highly resistant organic P (HROP) did not change obviously in the 6 soils, when phosphate was not added in the soils before incubation. The different phosphorus fractions in the 6 kinds of calcareous farmland soils all increased, when phosphate was added in the soils before incubation. The quantities of the different phosphorus fractions increased as the quantity of the phosphate added before incubation increased. To the inorganic phosphorus, Ca2-P content increased obviously; Ca2-P increased sharply in the first month incubating, then dropped gently, finally tended to stable; Ca8-P, Al-P, Fe-P, and Ca10-P increased as the incubation time went on, Ca8-P increased the most; Al-P , Fe-P. Ca10-P increased gently, O-P changed the smallest. The order of the increases of the different organic phosphorus fractions is MLOP > MROP > LOP > HROP.

2. The results of the pot experiment of the two different kinds of calcareous soils showed that Ca8-P was the major type to provide phosphorus to the crop in the calcareous soils, and Al-P, Ca2-P, Fe-P, and Ca10-P also can provided phosphorus to the crop to varying degrees. LOP, MLOP, and MROP could provide phosphorus to the crop when they were mineralized. The function of O-P and HROP was the smallest.

3. The correlations between different phosphorus fractions in the calcareous soils and available-P in the soils showed that Ca2-P, Ca8-P, and Al-P all positively and significantly correlated with the available-P in the soils, this meant that these three kinds of inorganic phosphorus fractions were the effective phosphorus source, and the order of the availability of the three inorganic phosphorus fractions is Ca2-P > Ca8-P > Al-P. The correlations between any two of Ca2-P, Ca8-P and Al-P were remarkable, and this showed that these three kinds of inorganic phosphorus fractions may transform mutually. LOP, MLOP, and MROP also positively and significantly correlated with available-P, and it meant that these three kinds of organic phosphorus fractions were the effective phosphorus sources too.

4. The phosphorus isothermal adsorption curves of the calcareous soils fitted the Langmuir adsorption equation well. The soil available-P, total P, organic content, and the amount of the phosphate fertilizer used all negatively related to the adsorption phosphorus quantity of the soil. Using phosphate increased the soil phosphorus content, reduced the value of Qm, and enhanced the value of “k”. The value of Qm dropped and the value of “k” increased as the incubation time went on. Planting rape increased the value of Qm and dropped the value of “k”.

论文目录:

 


摘要············································································································································ 1


第一章 ···························································································································· 2


1 土壤中磷素的形态············································································································ 3


1.1 土壤中无机磷的存在形态、分级及其有效性························································ 3


1.1.1 土壤无机磷的形态···························································································· 3


1.1.2 土壤无机磷的分级···························································································· 4


1.1.3 土壤无机磷的转化···························································································· 4


1.1.4 土壤无机磷各组分的有效性············································································ 5


1.2 土壤有机磷存在形态、分级及其有效性································································ 6


1.2.1 土壤中有机磷的存在形态················································································ 6


1.2.2 国内外对土壤有机磷组分以及分组方法的探讨············································ 6


1.2.3 土壤有机磷的转化和生物有效性···································································· 8


2 土壤磷的吸附与解吸········································································································ 9


2.1 土壤磷的吸附与解吸机理························································································ 9


2.2 国内外土壤磷的吸附与解吸研究概况···································································· 9


3 长期大量施用磷肥的环境风险······················································································ 10


4 研究目的与意义·············································································································· 12


第二章 不同石灰性农田土壤的吸磷能力及磷素形态培养试验研究································ 13


1试验材料与方法··············································································································· 13


1.1 供试材料·················································································································· 13


1.2 试验方法·················································································································· 13


1.3 分析测定方法及数据处理······················································································ 14


2 结果与分析······················································································································ 16


2.1 培养试验中,石灰性农田土壤无机磷形态转化················································· 16


2.1.1 供试土壤无机磷分布情况·············································································· 16


2.1.2培养试验中,石灰性农田土壤无机磷形态转化及有效性··························· 17


2.2培养试验中,石灰性农田土壤有机磷形态转化·················································· 25


2.2.1 供试石灰性土壤有机磷形态分析·································································· 25


2.2.2培养试验中,石灰性土壤有机磷形态转化及有效性··································· 26








 

2.3培养试验中,施磷对不同石灰性农田土壤吸磷能力的影响······························· 32


2.3.1培养180天后,不同石灰性农田土壤磷的等温吸附曲线··························· 32


2.3.2培养180天后,石灰性农田土壤的Langmuir吸附方程及其相关系数······ .34


2.3.3培养360天后,不同石灰性农田土壤磷的等温吸附曲线··························· 35


2.3.4培养360天后,石灰性农田土壤的Langmuir吸附方程及其相关系数······· 36


3 结论·································································································································· 37


第三章 施磷对石灰性土壤磷形态及油菜生长影响的研究··············································· 39


1 材料与方法······················································································································ 39


1.1供试材料··················································································································· 39


1.2试验方法与实施······································································································· 39


1.3分析测定方法及数据处理······················································································· 40


2 结果与分析······················································································································ 40


2.1施磷对不同石灰性土壤无机磷形态转化及有效性的影响··································· 40


2.1.1两种石灰性土壤中不同形态无机磷数量和比例··········································· 40


2.1.2施用磷肥对两种石灰性土壤不同无机磷组分的影响··································· 41


2.1.3石灰性土壤不同形态无机磷与土壤有效磷的相关性··································· 42


2.2施用磷肥对两种石灰性土壤有机磷组分的影响··················································· 43


2.2.1两种石灰性土壤有机磷含量和比例······························································· 43


2.2.2施用磷肥对两种石灰性土壤有机磷组分的影响··········································· 44


2.2.3石灰性土壤不同形态有机磷与土壤有效磷的相关性··································· 45


2.3施磷对两种石灰性土壤磷吸附的影响··································································· 46


2.3.1施磷对褐土性土磷吸附的影响······································································· 46


2.3.2施磷对石灰性褐土磷吸附的影响··································································· 47


2.4施磷对油菜产量的影响··························································································· 49


2.5施磷对对油菜全磷含量的影响··············································································· 50


3 结论·································································································································· 50


第四章 结论与展望············································································································· 51


1 结论·································································································································· 51


2讨论与展望······················································································································· 52


参考文献······························································································································· 53


英文摘要······························································································································· 57


致谢………………………………………………………………………………………59








 

 


开放日期:

 2007-06-01

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